Over the last year important if uncomfortable questions have been raised about how to approach the topic of American chattel slavery with children. I’ve been following the conversations closely and they have informed me greatly as I prepare to begin my own teaching of the topic with my 4th grade students this week. It is a unit I’ve done for many years, always reworking it in response to new learnings, new circumstances, and new thinking.
Part of our year-long study of immigration, the unit is bluntly on the Transatlantic Slave Trade, on those who came here against their will from Africa, unlike any of the others the children have already studied (Europeans coming through Ellis Island circa 1900, Chinese coming through Angel Island at the time of the Chinese Exclusion Act, and recent immigrants through an oral history project). Since it is the first time our students have encountered this topic formally in school we continually grapple with how best to teach it. Over the years, teachers have approached it somewhat differently depending on personal experiences and background. One colleague began by sharing her own African-American family history. Another did so via her bi-racial background. A focus on social justice has been a third colleague’s framework. And mine is Africa due to my Sierra Leone Peace Corps experience and subsequent education, research, and writing.
In addition to readying the resources, activities, and discussions my students will experience, I’m preparing for their emotional responses. This includes letting parents know what I will be doing, what resources I will be using, and inviting their responses as well as any concerns regarding their children’s emotional reactions. Throughout the unit I will be carefully watching and listening and providing ways for my students to respond. I will do my best to create a safe place for all of them and be ready to shift my plans if necessary, well aware that each will respond differently depending on race, ethnicity, previous knowledge, family history, personality, and more.
And so tomorrow I will begin. First will be the establishment of a safe place. Here is what I’ve written on my internal class blog and will discuss with the children:
To start we want to be sure that all members of the Edinger House community are sensitive and aware that each person comes to this topic with different knowledge and experience. Some of you may know more than others, some of you may be more comfortable than others with this topic, and some of you may not yet know how you will respond to the topic. We need to be sure that everyone feels safe as we begin learning about these difficult truths about America’s past.
Along with this I will read two very different books, Penda Diakité and Baba Wagué Diakité’s I Lost My Tooth in Africa and Jacqueline Woodson’s Show Way. I use the Diakités’ book to give a view of recent West Africa (it is set in Bamako, Mali) through a child’s eyes, one that I can also talk about personally as it is familiar to me from my life there, and Jackie’s because it so powerfully connects the past with the present, establishing a tone and a theme for our work.
Because I feel it is a story of resilience and resistance, the center of the unit has long been the Amistad affair. Now I am able to use my own book, Africa is My Home; A Child of the Amistad, (with Keren Liu’s wonderful lessons) along with Veronica Chambers’ Amistad Rising, some of Elizabeth Alexander’s Amistad poems from American Sublime, and various primary sources (For anyone interested, more materials and resources for using my book are here.)
Many of my lessons are centered around books I read aloud. The following titles, among many more in my collection, are some that I am planning to use this year. I’ve selected them because I feel they are age-appropriate, well researched and created, and work for my particular approach to this topic. That said, which ones I end up using will depend on this year’s students’ expressed and observed interest and emotional responses.
Books set (or partially set) in Africa at the time of the slave trade:
- The Village that Vanished by Ann Grifalconi and Kadir Nelson.
- Never Forgotten by Patricia C. McKissack and Leo and Diane Dillon.
- Circle Unbroken by Margot Theis Raven and E. B. Lewis.
Books set in contemporary Africa (mostly West):
- Boundless Grace by Mary Hoffman and Caroline Binch.
- Deep in the Sahara by Kelly Cunnane and Hoda Hadadi.
- Emmanuel’s Dream by Laurie Ann Thompson and Sean Qualls.
- One Plastic Bag by Miranda Paul and Elizabeth Zunon.
- Anna Hibiscus (various titles) by Atinuke and Lauren Tobia.
Books set in America under slavery:
- Almost to Freedom by Vaunda Micheaux Nelson and Colin Bootman.
- Underground: Finding the Light to Freedom by Shane W. Evans.
- I Lay My Stitches Down: Poems of American Slavery by Cynthia Grady and Michele Wood.
- Mumbet’s Declaration of Independence by Gretchen Woelfle and Alix Delinois.
- The Price of Freedom: How One Town Stood Up to Slavery by Judith Bloom Fradin, Dennis Brindell Fradin, and Eric Velasquez.
- Henry’s Freedom Box: A True Story from the Underground Railroad by Ellen Levine and Kadir Nelson.
- Night Boat to Freedom by Margot Theis Raven and E. B. Lewis.
- Way Up and Over Everything by Alice McGill and Jude Daly.
- All Different Now: Juneteenth, the First Day of Freedom by Angela Johnson and E.B. Lewis.
- Dave the Potter by Laban Carrik Hill and Bryan Collier.
- Fredrick’s Journey by Doreen Rappaport and London Ladd.
- Brick by Brick by Charles R. Smith Jr. and Floyd Cooper.
- Poet: The Remarkable Story of George Moses Horton by Don Tate.
- Freedom in Congo Square by Carole Boston Weatherford and R. Gregory Christie.
- The Amazing Age of John Roy Lynch by Chris Barton and Don Tate.
And so, tomorrow I will begin. Given the passion of this past year’s discussions I am perhaps a bit less confident than other years. Admittedly a bit nervous. But that is okay as this is not about me, but about helping my students begin to know about this henious part of their country’s past.